The Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), also called the southern red muntjac and barking deer, is a deer species native to South and Southeast Asia. Growing up with a father that was from the Mods & Rockers era in 1960’s England, Oliver was brought up on bikes and mischief from a young … No comments so far . In practice, it means the end of grey squirrel rescue, because the residential pl Estimates of muntjac abundance (numbers of individuals in the spring) across the UK, from Harris et al. The British Deer Society coordinated a survey of wild deer in the UK between 2005 and 2007, and they reported that muntjac deer had noticeably expanded their range since the previous census in 2000. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough (. The population of muntjac deer has soared from 2,000 in 1963 to more than two million today — they are the most rapidly expanding of the six species of deer in Britain. A Review of British Mammals: Population Estimates and Conservation Status of British Mammals Other than Cetaceans. The muntjac deer was introduced into the UK from China in the 20th century. After escapes and deliberate movement of the deer by humans they have now spread over southern England and are increasing in number. Reeves's muntjac (M. reevesi), in comparison, has a diploid number of 46 chromosomes.[11]. The population now found in most of southern England is the Reeves’ Muntjac (muntiacus reevesi) named after John Reeves, who was an inspector with The East India Tea Company in 1812. (2008). The British Deer Society coordinated a survey of wild deer in the UK between 2005 and 2007 and reported that muntjac deer had noticeably expanded their range since the previous census in 2000. Since 1995, data on muntjac abundance have been collected under the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) organised by the British Trust for Ornithology. Taking its namesake from a population of feral deer that have been sweeping their way across the UK, Muntjac is a W650 that is the amalgamation of years of experience and work in the motorcycle scene that’s sweeping it’s own way in foreign territory. This colonisation has been assisted by further releases, escapees from captive stocks and natural range expansion. Our website uses cookies to provide you with a better online experience. An invasive population of Reeves's muntjac exists in the United Kingdom and in some areas of Japan (the Bōsō Peninsula and Izu Ōshima Island). Further information: Mammal Society website muntjac page. It's thought there are more than two million deer living in the UK. Muntjac are widespread across England and parts of Wales, with the greatest numbers in the South East. Breeding season: All year round, leading to rapid population growth. & Kingdon,N.G. Muntjac deer are of great interest in evolutionary studies because of their dramatic chromosome variations and the recent discovery of new species. The muntjac likes woodland habitats with a dense understorey, and breeds throughout the year. It has also become established in England after being introduced at Woburn, England (located in the middle of Bedfordshire county) around 1900. Reeves's muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi; Chinese: 山羌), also known as the Chinese muntjac, is a muntjac species found widely in southeastern China (from Gansu to Yunnan) and Taiwan. Reeves’ muntjac deer distribution (in green), taken from ‘Britain’s Mammals 2018: The Mammal Society’s Guide to their Population and Conservation Status.’ Diet: They feed on shoots of shrubs, woodland herbs and garden plants, but bramble and raspberry are their most important foods. Please read our cookie policy for more information. There are too few bag records of muntjac to produce an index graph. & Stanford,A. [9] Muntjac have expanded very rapidly, and are now present in most English counties and have also expanded their range into Wales, although they are less common in the north-west. © 2020 Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust, Charity registered in England and Wales, 1112023, in Scotland SC038868. Shoulder height: Up to 52cm. UK Mammals: Species Status and Population Trends. Taxonomy: Class: Mammalia; Order: Artiodactyla; Family: Cervidae. Muntjac. It has also been introduced in Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom (south England, the Midlands, [citation needed] east Wales [citation needed]), Ireland, and Japan. The Reeves muntjac (Muntiacus reeves) or Chinese muntjac, were named after John Russell Reeves who worked for the British East India Company in Canton and organised their transport back to the UK. A characteristic pose is head held lower than the back. There are too few bag records of muntjac to produce a trend starting before 1980. Since then, numbers have rocketed with the population spreading across much of southern England and into parts of Wales and further north. Muntjac breed all year round and can conceive within days of giving birth. Lifespan: Up to 19 years. It was originally introduced to Woburn Park, Bedfordshire, in 1894. (2005). Muntjac © Peter Thompson The muntjac originates from south-east China and Taiwan, It is a small brown deer with a white underside, no more than 50 cm tall at the shoulder. Muntjac were first introduced from China to Woburn Park in Bedfordshire in the early 20th century. A number of guides have been put together to help you identify deer as you take part in this survey. The present-day species are native to Asia and can be found in India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Vietnam, the Indonesian islands, Taiwan and Southern China. [3][4], The present name is a borrowing of the Latinized form of the Dutch muntjak, which was borrowed from the Sundanese mēncēk. Reeves Muntjac are a non native dog-like deer species whose population is spreading rapidly across the country. Harris,S. They frequently bark loudly, giving them the name ‘barking deer’, particularly when disturbed. So how many muntjac deer are there in the UK today? The Indian muntjac (M. muntjak) is the mammal with the lowest recorded chromosome number: The male has a diploid number of 7, the female only 6 chromosomes. & Yalden,D.W. If you continue to use our site without changing your browser settings, we'll assume you are happy to receive cookies. Hopefully through coordinated efforts, the muntjac population can be reduced. They are absent from Ireland. Game and Conservation Benchmarking Survey, GWCT National Gamebag Census & Tracking Mammals Partnership, © Crown Copyright. Most people see a live muntjac only when they swerve to avoid one as it wanders out from the edge of the road at dawn or dusk, and the species is implicated in a large proportion of the 60,000 collisions between deer and motor vehicles which occur each year on England’s roads, costing some £17 million in insurance claims. The muntjac originates from south-east China and Taiwan, It is a small brown deer with a white underside, no more than 50 cm tall at the shoulder. It can cause serious damage to gardens, coppice woodland and sometimes forestry. Mammal Society & British Deer Society, Southampton & Fordingbridge. They are secretive and because of their size can conceal themselves quite easily – much more easily than other deer. For all years, the BBS confidence intervals are completely within the NGC confidence intervals, suggesting that both series agree. As recently as the 1970s, when the UK population was estimated at just around 5,000, the muntjac was still confined to the Midlands and East Anglia. Escapees and deliberate releases from Woburn, Whipsnade and other private collections helped to establish a naturalised population focused in … They are also found in the lower Himalayas (Terai regions of Nepal and Bhutan). Chapman,N.G., Harris,S. There are apparently more deer in the UK now than at any time since the war. This reflects the ongoing range expansion and increasing abundance of this introduced species (see maps). Posted in: Flora & Fauna ~ On: 1 June, 2012. [citation needed], Muntjac are of great interest in evolutionary studies because of their dramatic chromosome variations and the recent discovery of several new species. Change in muntjac bags over time, with 95% confidence limits (see statistical methods): There has been a rapid increase in the bag index between 1980 and 2009, with average gains of 12% per annum across the period. Even more recently they have appeared in Northern Ireland, no doubt with the mostly illegal human assistance that also enabled much of their success in m… As of now it is illegal by UK law to rescue grey squirrels and monk jack deer and release back into the wild . The increase continued at a similar rate between 1995 and 2009. The species has steadily spread across the country and its population is expected to continue growing. At this time, England is the only place to hunt CWD in the wild, and recent studies suggest that Muntjac are likely becoming the most numerous deer species in the UK! In the last 3 decades muntjac numbers in all areas of the UK have increased dramatically. Comments are closed. It is thought that the Muntjac Deer are one of the oldest deer species. (1995). There are too few bag records of muntjac to evaluate rates of change over time. (2011). Muntjac are a small but stocky species of deer that stand at around 0.44 to 0.52m tall at the shoulder.When fully grown males (bucks) weigh between 10 to 18kg as adults and females (does) weigh 9 to16kg. Muntjac have expanded very rapidly and are now present in most English counties south of the M62 and have also expanded their range into Wales. The presence of these "tusks" is otherwise unknown in native British wild deer and can be an identifying feature to differentiate a muntjac from an immature native deer. NGC index of bag density (blue) and BBS index of abundance (red), from 1995 to 2009. A number of deliberate releases were undertaken in the 1940's and 50's and Muntjac have slowly but sure;y now colonised much of Southern England. The population of Fea’s muntjac is under study. Meanwhile, it has been around 150 years since the muntjac, Sika and Chinese water deer were introduced in the country. [5][6] An erroneous alternative name of 'Mastreani deer' has its origins in a mischievous Wikipedia entry from 2011 and is incorrect.[7]. pdf Muntjac deer (837 KB) pdf Red deer (850 KB) pdf Roe deer (808 KB) pdf Sika deer (843 KB) pdf More information about the Deer Distribution Survey (445 KB) Identifying deer. (1996). It is estimated that their current population is around 40,000 and that they are increasing at a rate of 10% per annum. Muntjac deer were introduced to Woburn Park, Bedfordshire and to parks in Hertfordshire and Northamptonshire. The genus Muntiacus has 12 recognized species: Smith-Jones, C. (2020), 'Mastreani deer, a very modern hoax', https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/136551/22165292, https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/42190/56005589, "Reeves's (or Chinese) Muntjac / Invasive Species of Japan", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muntjac&oldid=987795716, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2011, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2009, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 08:28. Deer play an important part in woodland ecosystems, but in some areas deer are thought to represent a threat to biodiversity through over-browsing. There are thought to be some two million red, roe, fallow, sika, muntjac and Chinese water deer in Britain’s countryside and semi-urban areas, the highest level for 1,000 years. Chapman,N.G. Category. In 1972 they were present in only 40 10 km squares, by 2002 they were found in 463 (Ward 2005). This report should be cited as: Aebischer,N.J., Davey,P.D. Related. A characteristic pose is head held lower than the back. [2] Most species are listed as Least Concern or Data Deficient by the IUCN although others such as the black muntjac, Bornean yellow muntjac and giant muntjac are Vulnerable, Near Threatened and Critically Endangered respectively. Species Ecology: Muntjac Deer. Given their large population, deer can easily be spotted anywhere, from grassland to woodland. The muntjac is present throughout most of southern and eastern England, and is penetrating into Wales. Below, the UK trend from the NGC is compared to the one from the BBS (from 1995 onwards). Regionally, the majority of records were from the easterly lowlands, reflecting the source of the ongoing range expansion and increasing abundance of this introduced species (see maps). The population has increased continually over the last 25 years. Breeding & family grouping Breeding habits are another area in which muntjacs differ from the other species of deer that live wild in the UK. Reeves' muntjac Muntiacus reevesii in Britain: their history, spread, habitat selection, and the role of human intervention in accelerating their dispersal. Mammal Review 24: 113-160. It is absent from Ireland. [8] In the United Kingdom, wild deer descended from escapees from the Woburn Abbey estate around 1925. Water deer also have visible tusks but they are much less widespread. Muntjacs are thought to have begun appearing 15–35 million years ago, with remains found in Miocene deposits in France, Germany[1] and Poland. An indication of their primitive nature comes from their visible canines which stick out from the top of the mouth. Giant Muntjac (Muntiacus vuquangensis) The muntjac (both sexes) may be shot all year round. This muntjac has soft, short, brownish or greyish hair, sometimes with creamy markings. Most will survive for at least 13 years or so, meaning they have plenty of time to proliferate and raise subsequent generations of muntjac deer to prolong their legacy. Muntjac buck called in by Author for photography. The pre-breeding season population of Muntjac deer is estimated 128,000 and increasing. They are also found in the lower Himalayas (Terai regions of Nepal and Bhutan). The increase continued at a similar rate between 1995 and 2009. Muntjacs are not a native species to Britain. Muntjac are a conservation concern in the UK as they impact on woodland ground flora. Introduction to Reeves’ Muntjac. Inhabiting tropical regions, the deer have no seasonal rut, and mating can take place at any time of year; this behaviour is retained by populations introduced to temperate countries. The IUCN listed this species as “data deficient” and demands more information and research concerning this species. ... of only 50cm to the shoulder (the height of a springer spaniel), and aren’t valued for their meat so in Britain the muntjac doesn’t have any effective predators. Fun fact: Muntjac … Muntjac are present in both Scotland and Northern Ireland, but in much smaller numbers. Further releases and escapes have resulted in the species becoming established in the wild since the 1930s. It was originally introduced to Woburn Park, Bedfordshire, in 1894. Like the NGC, the BBS has shown a significant increase since 1995. The 11th Duke of Bedford brought Reeves muntjac to Britain around the turn of the last century, establishing a herd at Woburn. They are not strictly nocturnal but peak activity is first thing in the morning and at dusk. Geographic Range. Especially due to the shy behavior and montane habitat of this species, very few is known about its range and distribution. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. In 1995 there were an estimated 52,000 animals in England (Harris et al. A world on fire distracted attention from these deer as they established a growing a population across southern England. By comparison an average adult man in Britain is 1.77m high and weighs 79kg.Muntjac are a russet brown colour for most of the year, turning to a dull grey in winter.Characteristically, muntjac have a ‘hunched’ appearance, as their rumps are higher than their shoulders. & Harris,S. [10] It is anticipated that muntjac may soon become the most numerous species of deer in England and may have also crossed the border into Scotland with a couple of specimens even appearing in Northern Ireland in 2009; they have been spotted in the Republic of Ireland in 2010, almost certainly having reached there with some human assistance. There are scattered records from northern England and a few from Scotland. All rights reserved NERC 100017897 2004, Changes in distribution of deer shot in Britain since 1960, Regulatory Reform (Deer) (England and Wales) Order 2007, Wildlife and Natural Environment (Scotland) Act 2011, Muntjac Keeping (Scotland) Regulations 2011, National Biodiversity Network and its data providers, Battersby,J. What Is The Size of the Muntjac Population in the UK? It can caus… Rescue centres can apply for a licence to keep grey squirrels, but not to release them. It has gained a stronghold in South East England, where it can cause damage to our woods through browsing. This presents an incredible opportunity for hunters. National Gamebag Census: Mammal Trends to 2009. Further releases and escapes have resulted in the species becoming established in the wild since the 1930s. Joint Nature Conservation Committee/Tracking Mammals Partnership, Peterborough (. Status: UK: Non-native World: Least Concern (IUCN Red List). Muntjac are the oldest but possibly the least studied and understood of all known deer species, prehistoric in origin with remains dated between 15 and 35 million years. Weight: Up to 18kg. Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust, Fordingbridge (http://www.gwct.org.uk/ngcmammals). Estimates date them back to 15-35 million years ago. Numbers may have doubled since 1999, according to the Deer Initiative (which promotes the sustainable management of wild deer) and other sources. There are six species; red and roe deer are native to the UK, whereas fallow, Chinese water deer, muntjac and sika deer are all non-native and were introduced. & Yalden,D.W. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. England & Wales Best Practice Guides, The Deer Initiative, Chirk (, Harris,S., Morris,P., Wray,S. The Latin form first appeared as Cervus muntjac in Zimmerman in 1780. It is among the smallest deer species. The muntjac likes woodland habitats with a dense understorey, and breeds throughout the year. In England, they have spread northward as far as Cheshire and Derbyshire. (1995): Index of bag density from 1980 to 2009 (see statistical methods and interpretational considerations). Muntjacs (/mʌndʒɑːk/ MUN-jahk), also known as barking deer or rib-faced deer are small deer of the genus Muntiacus native to south and southeast Asia. Muntiacus reevesi has a native range that extends throughout the subtropical forests of southeastern China and Taiwan. Back in 1963 there were only an estimated 2,000 of these deer in the country, but this number has exploded over the years to more than two million. Mammal Society, Southampton. They originate from China but were introduced to Woburn Park in Bedfordshire in 1838. Deer Initiative (2008). The muntjacs spread across this country was slow at first. GB population 52,000 (almost all in England; several hundred in Wales and fewer than 100 in Scotland). It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. Mammals; Statistics Length: 77-91cm Shoulder height: 45-52cm Weight: 10-17kg Males have short antlers, which can regrow, but they tend to fight for territory with their "tusks" (downward-pointing canine teeth). Mammals of the British Isles: Handbook, 4th edition. (1994). Among the six species, the red and the fallow deer are the most common in the UK. There has been a rapid increase in the bag index between 1980 and 2009, with average gains of 12% per annum across the period. 1995). 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